September 22, 2015

Video Training: Deliberate Handball or not? 2 - Solutions

The following match situation is taken from FC Augsburg - Hannover 96 (German Bundesliga, referee Christian Dingert) and belongs to the category Deliberate Handball?.
You are warmly encouraged to participate in discussion by answering the poll or placing a comment. Our official solution for this situation including the re-start of play will be published soon.

The following video is placed for educational purpose only.

Our solution (and at the same time the official DFB solution):

The white-dressed defender handles the ball and thus prevents a shot from reaching the goal. Despite a relatively small distance and low chance to react, the defender clearly enlarges his body surface by significantly outstretching the left arm which is not close to the body.

The arm and hand show a clear tension underlined by the circumstance that they hardly retreat after being hit by the ball. A tensed, stretched hand and arm usually indicate that a handball must be deemed as deliberate. If it had been clearly undeliberate, one would expect that the arm and hand are not stiff but rather limp - in this case, they would clearly retreat and move after being hit by the ball.

Furthermore, the defender has a clear visual contact to the ball. His arm and hand only move out as soon as the shot on goal is pulled off. If the hand had been in a player-typical position for a long time already, this would have indicated a rather undeliberate handball. It is irrelevant that the ball came from a light deflection off the offender's knee.

Due to the negligent - and for this reason, in the sense of the Laws of the Game and the corresponding directives and guidelines, 'deliberate' - hand position and movement, the referee should have awarded a penalty kick.

For the referee, this was almost impossible to detect as, from his actually correct position, the handball was obstructed by the body of the offender. Only the first assistant referee had a small, but existing chance to spot the infringement and provide the referee with accurate pieces of information.

The defender should have been cautioned with a yellow card as a shot on goal was prevented by a deliberate handball. A red card is not necessary, as it was no clear goal or clear and obvious goal-scoring opportunity with the goalkeeper being in a good position to save the ball.

69% of the users agreed with our - and DFB's - solution.


  1. I believe it's no deliberate handball but at least 9/10 referees award a penalty kick.
    I'm sure I have also awarded penalty kick for such "infringement" during my career.

  2. PK & YC. Arm position is not natural . The rebound on the thigh is not relevant.

    1. Anonymous22/9/15 22:18

      I think it's a pretty natural arm position for that situation.

    2. A player going in to block a shot wants to be hit (that's the purpose of the block) and jumps in front of ball deliberately. As such, he MUST ensure his arms are tight against his body or behind it. Anywhere else and contact = deliberate (tensed or not).

  3. Anonymous22/9/15 20:19


    UEFA won't be happy with this kind of statements...

    1. Anonymous22/9/15 22:01

      Did she actually say those words??? Was she appointed by UEFA after making such statements??? Any male FIFA referee would have been removed from appointments right away!

    2. What in all the world was the AR doing commenting on encroachment? It is clearly defined as the referee's area of responsibility.

    3. Anonymous22/9/15 22:14

      No matter what the AR said, the situation was straight from the table shown in the LOTG book, so the referee had no excuses for making such a big mistake. Poll, Rosetti, Larrionda have not publicly blamed their ARs and retired after making big mistakes in more difficult situations.

    4. Anonymous23/9/15 08:40

      In the interview she clearly states that it was her responsibility and mistake, not the team's. She admits she took the wrong decision and felt horrible about it. As a referee I feel great sympathy for her, because every referee will understand the feeling of knowing that you made the wrong call and are unable to change it.
      From a refereeing perspective the challenge for her is to come out stronger and I wish her well.

    5. Perhaps blaming AR is women referees' attitude. The "Touchdown referee" did the same, though at least not publicly.

    6. Why should that be a female attitude please?

      I don't know whether I have read another interview. But what Kurtes did is pointing out how it came to this decision (blackout, confusion, contrary pieces of information with regard to the LotG). But she did not blame her teammates. She highlighted it as her mistake...

    7. You might be correct as I have not read the article. Commented upon the above comments having heard myself the other story. And as I re-read all comments again I have to admit I have not been careful enough in reading.

    8. Finished the article. For me it's not so obvious she's blaming only herself.
      By the way a such "level" referee have to know what to award in a situation like this even in the middle of the night and can't be confused by different "tips". Otherwise she is incompetent.

    9. It has now been removed...

    10. Anonymous23/9/15 22:18

      Same as the Facebook page of the Swedish referee Mohammed Al-Hakim... Just a coincidence? :)

  4. Anonymous23/9/15 03:45

    Kuertes is appointed this week in Womens Euro with committee member as observer

    1. Anonymous23/9/15 22:32

      In 2005, the same technical mistake ended the international career of the Japanese referee Toshimitsu Yoshida:
      Why Kurtes is treated differently in exactly the same situation?

  5. Anonymous23/9/15 09:40

    Who was observing?

  6. A different type of handball situation from Bundesliga 2. In this case penalty was given, although it looked like a textbook example of unintentional handball. 0:35

    My general impression is, not just on these two situations, that referees seem to follow different criteria when making these handball decision; there seems to be a lack of direction.

    1. Thanks for this video, will attach it later with 1 additional, other video.

    2. Another interesting handball case from Bundesliga. Is the hand out-stretched or not? I'd personally say yes, it's rather deliberate. 3:25

    3. Thanks for this video, will attach it later with 1 additional, other video.

    4. The first is avoidable (shot from 10 yards away). Hand beside body. It cannot be there when a shot is anticipated. Deliberate. PK.

      The second is avoidable although shot is from 3 yards away. Hand is away from body -- player makes himself "bigger". It cannot be there when a shot is anticipated. Deliberate. PK and Caution.

  7. OT.

    Is YC sufficient? 4:32

  8. Anonymous23/9/15 21:55

    OT: Appointments for Matchday 2


    Malmö - Real: Aytekin (GER)
    Shakhtar - Paris: Atkinson (ENG)
    CSKA - Eindhoven: Fernández Borbalán (ESP)
    United - Wolfsburg: Undiano Mallenco (ESP)
    Atlético - Benfica: Kassai (HUN)
    Astana - Galatasaray: Hansen (DEN) - maybe as a debut
    Juventus - Sevilla: Eriksson (SWE)
    Mönchengladbach - City: Mazic (SRB)
    Borisov - Roma: Nijhuis (NED)
    Barcelona - Leverkusen: Clattenburg (ENG)
    Bayern - Zagreb: Tagliavento (ITA)
    Arsenal - Olympiakos: Turpin (FRA)
    Porto - Chelsea: Mateu Lahoz (ESP)
    Tel Aviv - Kyiv: Buquet (FRA)
    Zenit - Gent: Rocchi (ITA)
    Lyon - Valencia: Çakir (TUR)


    Molde - Ajax: Koukoulakis (GRE)
    Celtic - Fenerbahce: Stavrev (MKD)
    Liverpool - Sion: Sousa (POR)
    Kazan - Bordeaux: Welz (GER)
    PAOK - Dortmund: Strahonja (CRO)
    Krasnodar - Qäbälä: Trattou (CYP)
    Legia - Napoli: Kulbakov (BLR)
    Brügge - Midtylland: Özkhaya (TUR)
    Villarreal - Plzen: Blom (NED)
    Minsk - Wien: Madden (SCO)
    Braga - Groningen: Borski (POL)
    Marseille - Liberec: Drachta (AUT)
    Lazio - Saint-Étienne: Balaj (ROU)
    Rosenborg - Dnipro: Gräfe (GER)
    Lokomotiv - Skënderbeu: Gumienny (BEL)
    Besiktas - Sporting: Jug (SVN)
    Basel - Lech: Delfriere (BEL)
    Belenenses - Fiorentina: Evans (WAL)
    Monaco - Tottenham: Yefet (ISR)
    Qarabag - Anderlecht: Pisani (MLT)
    Schalke - Asteras: Mazeika (LTU)
    Praha - APOEL: Manzano (ESP)
    Alkmaar - Athletic: Soares Dias (POR)
    Augsburg - Partizan: Van Boekel (NED)

    What do you think?


    1. Anonymous24/9/15 12:20

      Three spanish referees in Champions?
      I do not think that.

    2. Mine predections:
      Malmö-Real Madrid Deniz Aytekin (GER)
      Shaktar-Paris SG Daniele Orsato (ITA)
      CSKA Moskva-PSV Eindhoven Cüneyt Cakir (TUR)
      ManUtd.-VfL Wolfsburg David Fernández Borbalán (ESP)
      Atlétcio-SL Benfica Tasos Sidiropoulos (GRE)
      FC Astana-Galatasaray Felix Zwayer (GER)
      Juventus-Sevilla Milorad Mazic (SRB)
      M'gladbach-ManCity Gianlucha Rocchi (ITA)
      BATE-Roma Artur Soares Dias (POR)
      FC Barcelona-Leverkusen Martin Atkinson (ENG)
      Bayern München-Dinamo Zagreb Alberto Undiano Mallenco (ESP)
      Arsenal FC-Olympiakos Viktor Kassai (HUN)
      FC Porto-Chelsea FC Jonas Eriksson (SWE)
      Maccabi Tel-Aviv-Dynamo Kyiv Clément Turpin (FRA)
      Zenit-KAA Gent Ievgeny Aranovsky (UKR)
      Lyon-Valencia Mark Clattenburg (ENG)

      Europa League
      Molde-Ajax Trattou (CYP)
      Celtic-Fenerbahce Hategan (ROU)
      Liverpool-Sion Hannsen (DEN)
      Rubin Kazan-Gir. Bordeaux Blom (NED)
      PAOK-Dortmund Mazzoleni (ITA)
      Krasnodar-Qabala Gestranius (FIN)
      Legia Warszawa-SSC Napoli Kulbakov (BLR)
      Club Brügge-Midtylland Strahonja (CRO)
      Villareal-Viktoria Plzen Kruzliak (SVK)
      Dinamo Minsk-Rapid Wien Bognár (HUN)
      SC Braga-FC Groningen Stavrev (MKD)
      Ol.Marseille-Slovan Liberec Drachta (AUT)
      Lazio-AS Saint-Étienne Lahoz (ESP)
      Rosenborg-Dnipro Mazeika (LTU)
      Lokomotiv Moskva-Skenderbeu Buquet (FRA)
      Besiktas-Sporting Gil (POL)
      FC Basel-Lech Poznán Bezbodorov (RUS)
      Belenenses-ACF Fiorentina Liany (ISR)
      AS Monaco-Tottenham Kralovec (CZE)
      Qarabag-RSC Anderlecht Pisani (MLT)
      Schalke-Asteras Jug (SVN)
      Sparta Praha-Apoel Bobby Madden (SCO)
      AZ Alkmaar-Athletic Bilbao Hunter (NIR)
      FC Augsburg-Partizan Johansesson (SWE)

    3. Predections for EQ MD 9
      ICE-LAT A Michael Oliver England
      CZE-TUR A Milorad Mazic Serbia
      KAZ-NED A Matej Jug Slovenia
      BHR-WAL B Daniele Orsato Italy
      AND-BEL B Vladislav Bezbodorov Russia
      ISR-CPY B Stefan Johannesson Sweden
      ESP-LUX C Kenn Hansen Denmark
      SVK-BLR C Alon Yefet Israel
      MKD-UKR C Pawel Gil Poland
      SCO-POL D Gianlucha Rocchi Italy
      GEO-GIB D Andris Treimanis Latvia
      IRL-GER D Undiano Mallenco Spain
      SUI-SMR E Robert Schörgenhofer Austria
      SLO-LIT E Mattias Gestranius Finnland
      ENG-EST E Clement Turpin France
      ROU-FIN F Danny Makkeile Netherlands
      NIR-GRE F Tony Chapron France
      HUN-FRO F Carlos Clos Gómez Spain
      MDA-RUS G Felix Zwayer Germany
      MON-AUT G Bas Nijhus Netherlands
      LIE-SWE G Alexandru Dan Tudor Romania
      AZE-ITA H Istan Vad Hungary
      CRO-BUL H Artur Dias Portugal
      NOR-MLT H Ievgenii Aranovsky Ukraine
      POR-DEN I Mark Clattenburg England
      ALB-SRB I Jonas Eriksson Sweden
      FRA-ARM I-FR Tamas Bognar Hungary

    4. Anonymous27/9/15 02:00

      @Márk Szántó, Tasos with Benfica again? An Ukrainian referee officiating a match involving a Russian team?

  9. Anonymous23/9/15 23:41

    Felix Zwayer today with a really bad day in the German Bundesliga. He oversaw 2 clear penalties in favor of Schalke and 1 missed RC for Huntelaar (SFP).

  10. Anonymous23/9/15 23:55

    Interesting game in the Dutch KNVB-beker.... Heracles Almelo-Vitesse. 4 red cards, 2 penalty's, game suspended. Referee: Makkelie.

    1. Anonymous24/9/15 09:51

      Suspended why?

    2. The Vitesse coach was sent-off by the referee, but apparently he did not want to leave the pitch. Makkelie reacted by temporarily suspending the game (for a minute of 5).

    3. Very interesting match from the angle of refereeing... Besides above mentioned 4 red cards and 2 penalties, the referee should have showed at least 2 more RCs (video 0:20), while the PK management in both cases was awful.

    4. What also interests me: Makkelie temporarily suspended the game (I've read that it was around minute 82'). The clock in the stadium, however, was not immediately stopped. When he returned to the pitch, he demanded either the clock (that was now at 84' or so) to be set back to 80' or to be disabled completely, because, according to his feeling, they left the pitch in minute 80'. Does anyone know what the rules for this are? Can a referee demand such things?

    5. If the game is suspended, then yes, the clocks should be stopped. The referee can and should liaise with the math commissionner to ensure that the crowd is not misled (which could lead to unnecessary anger by the fans and potential security risks).

  11. Romania : Funny player Alin Tosca showed Yellow Card to Marian Constantinescu ~Steaua vs. Chiajna~ LOL

  12. Anonymous24/9/15 13:55

    One question for Edward on PSV-ManU game. I agree that the tackle on Shaw was reckless and thus should be shown a yellow card but don't you think it was DOGSO? Thanks in advance

    1. The defender is in front of the attacker and for me he blocks every DOGSO possibility. Moreover his tackle is successive (he plays the ball) so IMO no case for DOGSO.

  13. Anonymous24/9/15 21:33

    Jonas Eriksson in controversy tonight. Missed a clear FK in the 90th that ended up in a PK for the other team in the situation after. 1-1 and a big goal that could decide the Championship.

  14. Yes, he missed a foul, but Eriksson did not bodycheck the attacker in that totally stupid way. They have (almost) only themselves to blame.
    By the way, the videos from Aftonbladet are geoblocked. Here's an open one:
    Penalty at 3:30. The missed could is shown at 5:40.

  15. Anonymous25/9/15 09:29

    What do you think who will a refere be in UEL Sparta-Apoel?

  16. Interesting situation from the Athletic Bilbao vs Real Madrid match..., time 00:58
    Benzema scored, however he was positioned in the penalty area at the moment when the goal kick was taken (than he left the penalty area, entered it again and intercepted the ball played back to the goalkeeper by defender / all of that within 5 seconds). Do you think the referee should have disallowed the goal or not? How should the match be restarted, any discipline measures?
    Please take a look and comment.

    1. No; the goalkeeper decided not to wait for Benzema to leave, it is his fault.

  17. As announced a while ago, here the new 2016 referee kits

    1. Anonymous25/9/15 12:05

      Ugly, ugly, ugly. As for referee 2012 kits I expect that they will change the colour of "adidas" later. You don't really see it now.

      But the most important question: socks in each colour?????

    2. Anonymous25/9/15 15:32

      Why does Adidas always make socks in each colour? It looks really awful in my view. I remember Tagliavento in last seasons CL match Anderlecht - Dortmund wearing a blue shirt, black trousers and light grey socks. What's the sense behind this?
      I think a really interesting question is: Will the referees wear the coloured socks domestically?
      I don't like them either.

  18. Handball deliberate is very easy. The ball to the hand: not penalty.
    The hand to the ball: penalty.
    The rest is nonsense.

  19. OT.

    Offside after rebound? Two questions. First, did the ball touch RB #27 before the GK? Second, after the ball came back from GK, did RB #27 touch the ball before it had crossed the line? At least one 'yes' means offside. I personally couldn't tell because of the not-so-good replay. 0:53

    1. No offside in neither of the two situations. The second one was extremely difficult to detect (no. 27 touching the ball on the goal line) and if that one was called the offside and not the one just a few seconds before, than a huge congrats to the AR.

  20. Has somebody any news about the new 2016 FIFA list ? Which changes on international referees ?

    1. The deadline for national associations to submit their lists in October 18.

    2. Anonymous25/9/15 22:33

      Are we going to see any referees or ARs older than 45?

    3. If you read what I posted in the last thread, it is possible, yes.

    4. Anonymous26/9/15 15:33

      The question is not whether it is possible, but whether it is going to actually happen? In other words, the age limits were removed only on paper, to please the work legislation, or is it going to be actually applied and will see referees and/or ARs older than 45 on the FIFA lists?

  21. Anonymous25/9/15 14:20

    My guesses for MD 2 of CL:

    Malmo-Madrid: Nijhuis
    Shaktar-Paris: Cakir
    CSKA-PSV: Soares Dias
    ManU-Wolfsburg: Tagliavento
    Atletico-Benfica: Mazic
    Astana-Galatasaray: Jug
    Juventus-Sevilla: Eriksson
    M´gladbach-ManCity: Turpin
    BATE-Roma: Kruzliak
    Barca-Leverkusen: Clattenburg
    Bayern-Zagreb: Stavrev
    Arsenal-Olympiakos: Kassai
    Porto-Chelsea: Mateu Lahoz
    Tel Aviv- Kiev: Fernandez Borbalan
    Zenit-Gent: Aytekin
    Lyon-Valencia: Atkinson

    honestly, some "risky" names within my guesses... what do you think?

    best regards

    1. Anonymous25/9/15 15:20

      Compliments to you. Disagree with Stavrev, maybe you could take the risk also with Hansen and I am missing Rocchi. That is the clear trend (also for EL) that new names are and will be introduced.


    2. Anonymous25/9/15 15:22

      *There is a clear trend* - correction.

    3. Anonymous25/9/15 16:14

      Zagreb has now three points. I think this team, for respect to Croatia, must be treated as other ones.

    4. My guesses based on the UEFA observer appointments.

      Malmö-Madrid: Clattenburg (ENG)
      Shakhtar-Paris: Atkinson (ENG)
      CSKA-PSV: Buquet (FRA)
      ManU-Wolfsburg: Turpin (FRA)
      Atletico-Benfica: Rocchi (ITA)
      Astana-Galatasaray: Kulbakov (BLR)
      Juventus-Sevilla: Eriksson (SWE)
      M´gladbach-ManCity: Kassai (HUN)
      BATE-Roma: De Sousa (POR)
      Barca-Leverkusen: Cakir (TUR)
      Bayern-Zagreb: Nijhuis (NED)
      Arsenal-Olympiakos: Mazic (SRB)
      Porto-Chelsea: Mateu Lahoz (ESP)
      Tel Aviv- Kiev: Fernández Borbalán (ESP)
      Zenit-Gent: Jug (SVN)
      Lyon-Valencia: Aytekin (GER)

      I am not happy with predicting Mazic for Arsenal as he had Medina Cantalejo already - same for Nijhuis and Rosetti. But changing it would destroy everything :)

    5. Didn't Clatts have Malmö recently? Like your predictions tho...

    6. Anonymous26/9/15 20:34

      Clattenburg at Malmö-Madrid does not stack up. It's not a high-profile match, we should definitely see another one in Sweden.

    7. Anonymous26/9/15 20:35

      Impossible to see Jorge Sousa in Bate Borisov-Roma as he's injured.

    8. Anonymous26/9/15 21:04

      My predictions:

      GROUP A
      Malmö - Real Madrid: Deniz AYTEKIN
      Shaktar Donetsk - PSG: Mark CLATTENBURG

      GROUP B
      CSKA - PSV: Milorad MAZIC
      Man. United - Wolfsburg: Paolo TAGLIAVENTO

      GROUP C
      At. Madrid - Benfica: Viktor KASSAI
      Astana - Galatasaray: Clément TURPIN

      GROUP D
      Juventus - Sevilla: Jonas ERIKSSON
      M'gladbach - Man. City: Cüneit ÇAKIR

      GROUP E
      Barcelona - Bayer Leverkusen: Matej JUG (I would place Nijhuis here if Orsato were available to officiate Zenit-Gent)
      Bate Borisov - Roma: Kenn HANSEN

      GROUP F
      Bayern - D. Zagreb: Artur SOARES DIAS
      Arsenal - Olympiacos: Gianluca ROCCHI

      GROUP G
      FC Porto - Chelsea: Mateu Lahoz (I had thought of Undiano Mallenco but was told he can't be designated)
      Maccabi Tel-Aviv - D. Kyiv: Fernández Borbalán

      GROUP H
      Lyon - Valencia: Martin ATKINSON
      Zenit - Gent: Bas NIJHUIS (I would place Orsato here but looks like he can't officiate this time)

    9. Anonymous27/9/15 00:45

      IMO, Eriksson after the "thin" performance in the Roma now goes to Turin? Also, what is the reason that Kyros Vassaras looked/observed Cakir? Clatts again far "east"? Possibly. Everything is possible...:)

    10. Anonymous27/9/15 01:52

      What's the issue with Clattenburg officiating in Ukraine after he took charge of a Russia's match some weeks ago??

      Why can't Çakir get observed by Vassaras?

      Concerning Eriksson, I haven't watched his performance in Rome but if Collum, following his disastrous display in Tbilisi, keeps on officiating matches...

    11. Anonymous27/9/15 02:35

      Why is Cakir in focus? Vassaras a "specialist", it's clear. Does the Committee any concerns about Cakir? I don't understand. More like this match/important observer for Kassai and verification of "return", really. Maybe Turpin, Nijhuis, Jug?

    12. Anonymous27/9/15 02:42

      Plautz again observed Mazic, or Medina Cantaleyo? I don't believe it. Again, everything is possible.

    13. Anonymous27/9/15 03:21

      @Anonymous 2:35, frankly speaking I couldn't make heads or tails of this: "More like this match/important observer for Kassai and verification of "return", really. Maybe Turpin, Nijhuis, Jug?".

      Again, can't see any issue with "specialist" Vassaras observing Çakir.

    14. Anonymous27/9/15 11:28

      @Anonymous September 26, 2015, predictions 1/6... :)))

    15. Anonymous27/9/15 12:32


    16. Anonymous27/9/15 19:04

      @Anonymous September 27 2015 11: 28, 11:32, I got 2/8...not bad!

      What about you? 0/16? :))))

  22. UEFA swapped some observers in UEL:
    Steinborn in Legia-Napoli, Reijgwart now in Basel-Poznán and Spirin now in Schalke.

    1. Do you have observer's list for EQ? :D

  23. Anonymous25/9/15 22:48

    Do you think Edvartsen (NOR) can be a candidate for a EL group stage match? There should be a place available as Hagen retired and Edvartsen performed well in CL and EL qualifying.

  24. Bad,bad Christian Dingert yesterday at Köln-Ingolstadt.

  25. Wow. Clatts' regular assistants are having a nightmare in the Spurs - City game. All FOUR goals were offside

    1. Anonymous26/9/15 15:59

      0-1 counterattack and very difficult decision for assistant referee, offside by knee I think.
      1-1 enormous mistake.
      Goal following free kick another clear mistake: this situation is stationary and assistant referee should have a clear overlal view of players in offside at the moment of the shot on goal.
      Luckily this happened today, and not in Champions League.

    2. Anonymous26/9/15 18:52

      Clatts's Ar's are unacceptable. These are that prompt mistakes- Clatts's referees team must be the highest level in the Premiership, not only in the UCL. Disaster! :/

    3. The 2-1 and the 4-1 seemed ok to me.
      0-1 was so tight that you cannot really blame the assistant; 1-1 and 3-1 were easy, obvious calls.

  26. Anonymous26/9/15 20:57

    Does anybody have a video from this match in Netherlands? Makkelie? Heracles - Vitesse?

    I would really apprecieted. I can't find it.

    That's why I'm asking the experts here :)

  27. Mihály Fábián (Hungary, Kassai's AAR) retired from refereeing.

    1. Anonymous26/9/15 21:49


    2. I think injured again and again but i dont know.

    3. What I understood from linked article, those are only rumours or do you have access to another info? By the way, he refereed the Békéscsaba–Videoton game yesterday.

    4. This was his last match.


    6. Thank you! All the best to him!

  28. OT.

    Penalty? 3:15

    1. Very risky defender's behaviour, but also totally unnatural fall showed by attacker. You can see how the attacker trails his right leg and then jumps taking both feet simultaneously off the ground what is an indicator of dive and will to win a free kick/penalty kick. So, no penalty!.

    2. *trails his left leg - correction

    3. Going nowhere. Classic location for a "simulation" attempt.

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